An already conducted study
From December 31, 2023, no more food waste in your trash cans. Sorting biodegradable waste at source will be generalized for all French households and professionals. †2024 is tomorrow”, the president of SIAVED, the joint association responsible for the collection, treatment and recovery of waste for three affiliated intermunicipal companies: the urban community of La Porte du Hainaut, the community of communes Cœur d’Ostrevent and the community of agglomeration of Caudresis-Catesis. †We’ll have to go very soon!This is why SIAVED initiated a study prior to establishing a local bio-waste management system. This study, entrusted to the Parisian expertise, consultancy and engineering firm Elcimaï, recently delivered its first solutions for SIAVED. After a diagnosis and an inventory of the waste management in the areas covered by the syndicate, three possible scenarios (see below) have been identified, on which SIAVED will have to consider in order to decide on the most suitable system.
Common sense and ecological emergency
It has been an obligation since 2016 for all major producers of bio-waste (more than 10 tons per year) taken under the Grenelle II law in France in 2010. The Energy Transition and Green Growth Act (LTECV) of 2015 generalized the sorting of bio-waste at source by 2025 for all other producers of bio-waste, i.e. all households, companies or communities. Indeed, biowaste represents a third of our garbage cans. However, this waste (mainly kitchen waste and green waste) has the ability to “rot”, hence the name perishable or fermentable. Even today, this 18 million tons of biowaste is incinerated or buried annually in France. Treatment methods leading to different types of pollution (atmospheric, global warming, soil pollution and threats to water resources). Conversely, the composting and methanisation of this biowaste makes it possible to produce energy (biogas) as well as to return organic matter (compost or digestate) to the soil, adapted to the agronomic needs of the soil. So it is common sense but also an ecological emergency. This will be SIAVED’s new challenge on our territory in the coming years.
Two years to experiment and then deploy
Depending on the chosen scenario, between 5.3 and 5.7 million euros will have to be invested. Aid from ADEME is not high (from 30 to 130,000 euros). In operation, this new device will cost between 1.5 and 2.6 million euros per year excluding taxes, depending on the model chosen. To compensate, there will certainly be a reduction in household residual waste (82,000 tons/year in 2020 at SIAVED), which will lead to a reduction in collection and processing costs. The TEOM (garbage collection tax) of 15.62% established by Porte du Hainaut in 2021 will be able to participate in the financing. But other sources of savings will have to be found, such as reducing the frequency of household waste collection, depending on the system chosen and the size of the municipalities, stopping the collection of plants in favor of recycling centers, or even collecting of glass at voluntary return points only. And it will also be necessary to recruit (about seven people), because communication, training and monitoring of the project will be important and necessary (public information, help with composting, distribution of equipment, etc.). An experimental phase is planned for the first half of 2023 in 5 to 10% of the population. The final choice and gradual deployment between the second half of 2023 and mid-2026.
Three possible scenarios have been identified in the research carried out by an expert bureau for SIAVED.
The first, minimum, covers 95% of the composting to be carried out by individuals and professionals (except, for the latter, those who produce more than 5 tons of biowaste per year and will have to use a private collector). However, in order to implement this sorting at source with individual or collective composting, substantial investments will have to be made in equipment (composters, bio-buckets, pre-collection bags, composting workshops).
There is then an intermediate scenario including composting for the residents of the pavilions and the households in collective housing in the municipalities with fewer than 5,000 inhabitants. The others will have voluntary contribution terminals at their disposal (residents of cities with more than 5,000 inhabitants, and individuals and professionals in the city centers), while professionals outside the city center will have to start composting for those who throw less 5t/year (voluntary contribution for persons older than 5t/year). It is appropriate here to invest 700,000 euros to equip mobile bins and voluntary contribution terminals in addition to composters and individual bio-buckets.
Finally, the “maximum” provides for composting for the residents of individual pavilions as well as for collective housing in municipalities with less than 5,000 inhabitants, door-to-door collection for households living in collective housing outside the center in municipalities with more than 5,000 residents as well as residents and professionals in the city centers of municipalities with more than 5,000 inhabitants, and finally composting for certain companies or communities outside the city centers (- 5t/year) or door-to-door collection (+ 5t/year).